Continuing Education| Volume 10, ISSUE 3, P47-61, October 2019

Caring for Patients Using Medical Marijuana

      Since 1996, 33 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and all Canadian provinces have passed legislation legalizing the use of marijuana for medical purposes. Another 13 states allow use of low delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol/high cannabidiol products for medical reasons in some situations or as a legal defense to its use. Yet cannabis remains a Schedule I Controlled Substance, impacting not only the legality of a healthcare provider's prescription of cannabis outside of a medical marijuana program, but also the accessibility of marijuana available for research. The classification of cannabis as a Schedule I Controlled Substance therefore directly limits the amount of moderate- to high-quality human evidence regarding the effectiveness of cannabis for certain conditions, dosage, adverse effects, or safety. Regardless of the limited evidence, individuals are using medical cannabis products more frequently, and nurses are left without evidence-based, clinical resources when caring for them. To address this lack of resources, the National Council of State Boards of Nursing Board of Directors appointed members to the Medical Marijuana Nursing Guidelines Committee to develop recommendations to guide nurses’ care of patients using medical marijuana. This article presents their recommendations, which were published in July 2018, and various updates since that publication.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Nursing Regulation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Abrams D.I.
        • Hilton J.F.
        • Leiser R.J.
        • Shade S.B.
        • Elbeik T.A.
        • Aweeka F.T.
        • Schambelan M.
        Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
        Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003; 139: 258-266
        • American Cannabis Nurses Association
        (n.d.). The endocannabinoid system for nurses webinar recording.
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.
        5th ed. Author, Washington, DC2013
        • Andries A.
        • Frystyk J.
        • Flyvbjerg A.
        • Støving R.K.
        Dronabinol in severe, enduring anorexia nervosa: A randomized controlled trial.
        International Journal of Eating Disorders. 2014; 47: 18-23
        • Baethge C.
        • Hennen J.
        • Khalsa H.M.K.
        • Salvatore P.
        • Tohen M.
        • Baldessarini R.J.
        Sequencing of substance use and affective morbidity in 166 first-episode bipolar I disorder patients.
        Bipolar Disorders. 2008; 10: 738-741
        • Baker T.
        • Datta P.
        • Rewers-Felkins K.
        • Thompson H.
        • Kallem R.R.
        • Hale T.W.
        Transfer of inhaled cannabis into human breast milk.
        Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2018; 131: 783-788
      1. Beek v. City of Wyoming, No. 145816 (S. Ct. Mich. Feb. 6, 2014).
        • Bernstein L.
        U.S. affirms its prohibition on medical marijuana.
        The Washington Post. 2016, August 11;
        • Blake D.R.
        • Robson P.
        • Ho M.
        • Jubb R.W.
        • McCabe C.S.
        Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis.
        Rheumatology. 2006; 45: 50-52
        • Bonn-Miller M.O.
        • Loflin M.J.E.
        • Thomas B.F.
        • Marcu J.P.
        • Hyke T.
        • Vandrey R.
        Labeling accuracy of cannabidiol extracts sold online.
        JAMA. 2017; 318: 1708-1709
        • Calabria B.
        • Degenhardt L.
        • Hall W.
        • Lynskey M.
        Does cannabis use increase the risk of death? Systematic review of epidemiological evidence on adverse effects of cannabis use.
        Drug and Alcohol Review. 2010; 29: 318-330
        • Caldeira K.M.
        • Arria A.M.
        • O'Grady K.E.
        • Vincent K.B.
        • Wish E.D.
        The occurrence of cannabis use disorders and other cannabis-related problems among first-year college students.
        Addictive Behaviors. 2008; 33: 397-411
        • Cao D.
        • Srisuma S.
        • Bronstein A.C.
        • Hoyte C.O.
        Characterization of edible marijuana product exposures reported to United States poison centers.
        Clinical Toxicology. 2016; 54: 840-846
        • Carrà G.
        • Bartoli F.
        • Crocamo C.
        • Brady K.T.
        • Clerici M.
        Attempted suicide in people with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 167: 125-135
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Outbreak of lung injury associated with e-cigarette use, or vaping.
        • Cole J.M.
        Guidance regarding the Ogden Memo in jurisdictions seeking to authorize marijuana for medical use [Memorandum]. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Deputy Attorney General website.
        • Cole J.M.
        Guidance regarding marijuana related financial crimes [Memorandum]. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Deputy Attorney General website.
        • Cole J.M.
        Guidance regarding marijuana enforcement [Memorandum]. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Deputy Attorney General website.
        • Committee on Obstetric Practice
        ACOG committee opinion: Marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation [Committee Opinion No. 722]. Retrieved from American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website.
        • Committee on Substance Abuse, Committee on Adolescence
        The impact of marijuana policies on youth: Clinical, research, and legal update.
        Pediatrics. 2015; 135: e769-e785
      2. Compassionate Use Act of 1996, Cal. Health and Safety Code § 11362.5 (1996).

      3. Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act, 21 U.S.C. §§ 801-904 (1970).

        • Compton R.
        Marijuana-impaired driving: A report to Congress [DOT HS 812 440].
        National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC2017, July
      4. Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 113 U.S.C. 201 § 538.
        • Crean R.D.
        • Crane N.A.
        • Mason B.J.
        An evidence-based review of acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on executive cognitive functions.
        Journal of Addiction Medicine. 2011; 5: 1-8
        • Dai H.
        • Richter K.P.
        A national survey of marijuana use among US adults with medical conditions, 2016-2017.
        JAMA Network Open. 2019; 2e1911936
      5. Denial of Petition to Initiate Proceedings to Reschedule Marijuana, 81 Fed. Reg. 53688.
        • di Giacomo D.
        • De Domenico E.
        • Sette C.
        • Geremia R.
        • Grimaldi P.
        Type 2 cannabinoid receptor contributes to the physiological regulation of spermatogenesis.
        The FASEB Journal. 2016; 30: 1453-1463
        • du Plessis S.S.
        • Agarwal A.
        • Syriac A.
        Marijuana, phytocannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and male fertility.
        Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. 2015; 32: 1575-1588
        • Devinsky O.
        • Cross J.H.
        • Laux L.
        • Marsh E.
        • Miller I.
        • Nabbout R.
        • Wright S.
        Trial of cannabidiol for drug-resistant seizures in the Dravet syndrome.
        New England Journal of Medicine. 2017; 376: 2011-2020
        • Fox P.
        • Bain P.G.
        • Glickman S.
        • Carroll C.
        • Zajicek J.
        The effect of cannabis on tremor in patients with multiple sclerosis.
        Neurology. 2004; 62: 1105-1109
        • Freeman T.P.
        • Winstock A.R.
        Examining the profile of high-potency cannabis and its association with severity of cannabis dependence.
        Psychological Medicine. 2015; 45: 3181-3189
        • Gibbs M.
        • Winsper C.
        • Marwaha S.
        • Gilbert E.
        • Broome M.
        • Singh S.P.
        Cannabis use and mania symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Journal of Affective Disorders. 2015; 171: 39-47
        • Glass M.
        • Faull R.L.M.
        • Dragunow M.
        Cannabinoid receptors in the human brain: A detailed anatomical and quantitative autoradiographic study in the fetal, neonatal and adult human brain.
        Neuroscience. 1997; 77: 299-318
        • Government of Canada
        Understanding the new access to cannabis for medical purposes regulations.
        • Greenberg H.S.
        • Werness S.A.
        • Pugh J.E.
        • Andrus R.O.
        • Anderson D.J.
        • Domino E.F.
        Short-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers.
        Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1994; 55: 324-328
        • Grotenhermen F.
        Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids.
        Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 2003; 42: 327-360
        • Gunn J.K.L.
        • Rosales C.B.
        • Center K.E.
        • Nunez A.
        • Gibson S.J.
        • Christ C.
        • Ehiri J.E.
        Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        BMJ Open. 2016; 6e009986
        • GW Pharmaceuticals
        (n.d.) Information on Obtaining Sativex.
        • GW's Epidiolex Clinical Program
        • Hall W.
        • Solowij N.
        Adverse effects of cannabis.
        The Lancet. 1998; 352: 1611-1616
        • Hallak J.E.
        • Machado-de-Sousa J.P.
        • Crippa J.A.S.
        • Sanches R.F.
        • Trzesniak C.
        • Chaves C.
        • Zuardi A.W.
        Performance of schizophrenic patients in the Stroop Color Word Test and electrodermal responsiveness after acute administration of cannabidiol (CBD).
        Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. 2010; 32: 56-61
        • Halperin A.
        After the election, marijuana could be legal for recreational or medical use in 29 states.
        Los Angeles Times. 2016, October 29;
        • Haney M.
        • Gunderson E.W.
        • Rabkin J.
        • Hart C.L.
        • Vosburg S.K.
        • Comer S.D.
        • Foltin R.W.
        Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: Caloric intake, mood, and sleep.
        Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2007; 45: 545-554
        • Haney M.
        • Rabkin J.
        • Gunderson E.
        • Foltin R.W.
        Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV+ marijuana smokers: Acute effects on caloric intake and mood.
        Psychopharmacology. 2005; 181: 170-178
        • Haug N.A.
        • Kieschnick D.
        • Sottile J.E.
        • Babson K.A.
        • Vandrey R.
        • Bonn-Miller M.O.
        Training and practices of cannabis dispensary staff.
        Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. 2016; 1: 244-251
        • Hazekamp A.
        • Ruhaak R.
        • Zuurman L.
        • van Gerven J.
        • Verpoorte R.
        Evaluation of a vaporizing device (Volcano) for the pulmonary administration of tetrahydrocannabinol.
        Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2006; 95: 1308-1317
        • Hazekamp A.
        • Ware M.A.
        • Muller-Vahl K.R.
        • Abrams D.
        • Grotenhermen F.
        The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids—An international cross-sectional survey on administration forms.
        Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 2013; 45: 199-210
        • Herning R.I.
        • Hooker W.D.
        • Jones R.T.
        Tetrahydrocannabinol content and differences in marijuana smoking behavior.
        Psychopharmacology. 1986; 90: 160-162
        • Hesse M.
        • Thylstrup B.
        Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers.
        BMC Psychiatry. 2013; 13: 258
        • Ishida J.H.
        • Peters M.G.
        • Jin C.
        • Louie K.
        • Tan V.
        • Bacchetti P.
        • Terrault N.A.
        Influence of cannabis use on severity of hepatitis C disease.
        Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2008; 6: 69-75
        • Jaques S.C.
        • Kingsbury A.
        • Henshcke P.
        • Chomchai C.
        • Clews S.
        • Falconer J.
        • Oei J.L.
        Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: Weeding out the myths.
        Journal of Perinatology. 2014; 34: 417-424
        • Jetly R.
        • Heber A.
        • Fraser G.
        • Boisvert D.
        The efficacy of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in the treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares: A preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design study.
        Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015; 51: 585-588
        • Johnson J.R.
        • Burnell-Nugent M.
        • Lossignol D.
        • Ganae-Motan E.D.
        • Potts R.
        • Fallon M.T.
        Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC: CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain.
        Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2010; 39: 167-179
        • Jones R.T.
        • Benowitz N.L.
        • Herning R.I.
        Clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence.
        The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1981; 21: 143S-152S
        • Jutras-Aswad D.
        • DiNieri J.A.
        • Harkany T.
        • Hurd Y.L.
        Neurobiological consequences of maternal cannabis on human fetal development and its neuropsychiatric outcome.
        European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 2009; 259: 395-412
        • Karschner E.L.
        • Darwin W.D.
        • McMahon R.P.
        • Liu F.
        • Wright S.
        • Goodwin R.S.
        • Huestis M.A.
        Subjective and physiological effects after controlled Sativex and oral THC administration.
        Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2011; 89: 400-407
        • Katona I.
        Cannabis and endocannabinoid signaling in epilepsy.
        in: Pertwee R.G. Endocannabinoids. Springer International Publishing, 2015: 285-316
        • Kondrad E.
        • Reid A.
        Colorado family physicians' attitudes toward medical marijuana.
        Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 2013; 26: 52-60
        • Koppel B.S.
        • Brust J.C.
        • Fife T.
        • Bronstein J.
        • Youssof S.
        • Gronseth G.
        • Gloss D.
        Systematic review: Efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.
        Neurology. 2014; 82: 1556-1563
        • Kowal M.A.
        • Hazekamp A.
        • Grotenhermen F.
        Review on clinical studies with cannabis and cannabinoids 2010–2014.
        Cannabinoids. 2016; 11: 1-8
        • Langford R.M.
        • Mares J.
        • Novotna A.
        • Vachova M.
        • Novakova I.
        • Notcutt W.
        • Ratcliffe S.
        A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.
        Journal of Neurology. 2013; 260: 984-997
      6. Leary v. United States, 395 U.S. 6 (1969).

        • Lev-Ran S.
        • Roerecke M.
        • Le Foll B.
        • George T.P.
        • McKenzie K.
        • Rehm J.
        The association between cannabis use and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.
        Psychological Medicine. 2014; 44: 797-810
        • Linszen D.H.
        • Dingemans P.M.
        • Lenior M.E.
        Cannabis abuse and the course of recent-onset schizophrenic disorders.
        Archives of General Psychiatry. 1994; 51: 273-279
        • Lopez-Quintero C.
        • Pérez de los Cobos J.
        • Hasin D.S.
        • Okuda M.
        • Wang S.
        • Grant B.F.
        • Blanco C.
        Probability and predictors of transition from first use to dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: Results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).
        Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2011; 115: 120-130
        • Lu M.L.
        • Agito M.D.
        Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: Marijuana is both antiemetic and proemetic.
        Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2015; 82: 429-434
        • Mackie K.
        Cannabinoid receptors: Where they are and what they do.
        Journal of Neuroendocrinology. 2008; 20: 10-14
        • Madras B.K.
        Update of cannabis and its medical use.
      7. Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, Pub. L. No. 75–238, 50 Stat. 551 (1937).

        • Marijuana Policy Project
        Timeline of marijuana reform in the United States.
        • Maust D.T.
        • Bonar E.E.
        • Ilgen M.A.
        • Blow F.C.
        • Kales H.C.
        Agitation in Alzheimer disease as a qualifying condition for medical marijuana in the United States.
        The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2016; 24: 1000-1003
        • Mechoulam R.
        • Panikashvili D.
        • Shohami E.
        Cannabinoids and brain injury: Therapeutic implications.
        Trends in Molecular Medicine. 2002; 8: 58-61
        • Meiri E.
        • Jhangiani H.
        • Vredenburgh J.J.
        • Barbato L.M.
        • Carter F.J.
        • Yang H.M.
        • Baranowski V.
        Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination with ondansetron versus ondansetron alone for delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
        Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2007; 23: 533-543
        • Mikos R.A.
        On the limits of federal supremacy: When states relax (or abandon) marijuana bans [Policy Analysis No. 714]. Retrieved from Cato Institute website.
        • Müller-Vahl K.R.
        • Schneider U.
        • Koblenz A.
        • Jöbges M.
        • Kolbe H.
        • Daldrup T.
        • Emrich H.M.
        Treatment of Tourette's syndrome with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): A randomized crossover trial.
        Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002; 35: 57-61
        • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
        The health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids: The current state of evidence and recommendations for research.
        National Academies Press, Washington, DC2017
        • National Council of State Boards of Nursing
        The NCSBN National Nursing Guidelines for Medical Marijuana.
        Journal of Nursing Regulation. 2018; 9: S3-S59
        • National Conference of State Legislatures
        State medical marijuana laws.
        • Pacher P.
        • Bátkai S.
        • Kunos G.
        The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy.
        Pharmacological Reviews. 2006; 58: 389-462
        • Parfieniuk A.
        • Flisiak R.
        Role of cannabinoids in chronic liver diseases.
        World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2008; 14: 6109-6114
        • Park B.
        • McPartland J.M.
        • Glass M.
        Cannabis, cannabinoids and reproduction.
        Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 2004; 70: 189-197
        • PBS
        Marijuana timeline.
        • Pooyania S.
        • Ethans K.
        • Szturm T.
        • Casey A.
        • Perry D.
        A randomized, double-blinded, crossover pilot study assessing the effect of nabilone on spasticity in persons with spinal cord injury.
        Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2010; 91: 703-707
        • Rosenberg C.
        Applications to become registered under the Controlled Substances Act to manufacture marijuana to supply researchers in the United States.
        • Rosenberg C.
        Denial of petition to initiate proceedings to reschedule marijuana.
        • Rosenberg E.C.
        • Tsien R.W.
        • Whalley B.J.
        • Devinsky O.
        Cannabinoids and epilepsy.
        Neurotherapeutics. 2015; 12: 747-768
        • Rough L.
        Leafly's state-by-state guide to cannabis testing regulations.
        • Rubin R.
        Medical marijuana is legal in most states, but physicians have little evidence to guide them.
        JAMA. 2017; 317: 1611-1613
        • Russo E.B.
        Taming THC: Potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.
        British Journal of Pharmacology. 2011; 163: 1344-1364
        • Schuster R.M.
        • Hoeppner S.S.
        • Evins A.E.
        • Gilman J.M.
        Early-onset marijuana use is associated with learning inefficiencies.
        Neuropsychology. 2016; 30: 405-415
        • Schoeler T.
        • Kambeitz J.
        • Behlke I.
        • Murray R.
        • Bhattacharyya S.
        The effects of cannabis on memory function in users with and without a psychotic disorder: Findings from a combined meta-analysis.
        Psychological Medicine. 2016; 46: 177-188
        • Scottsdale Research Institute, LLC
        Amended petition for a writ of mandamus.
        • Sessions J.B.
        Marijuana enforcement [Memorandum]. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Attorney General website.
        • Skrabek R.Q.
        • Galimova L.
        • Ethans K.
        • Perry D.
        Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia.
        The Journal of Pain. 2008; 9: 164-173
        • Smith M.J.
        • Cobia D.J.
        • Reilly J.L.
        • Gilman J.M.
        • Roberts A.G.
        • Alpert K.I.
        • Csernansky J.G.
        Cannabis-related episodic memory deficits and hippocampal morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.
        Hippocampus. 2015; 25: 1042-1051
        • Söderpalm A.H.
        • Schuster A.
        • de Wit H.
        Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: Subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac.
        Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2001; 69: 343-350
        • Solowij N.
        • Pesa N.
        Cannabis and cognition: short- and long-term effects.
        in: Castle D. Murray R.M. D'Souza D.C. Marijuana and Madness. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK2012: 91-102
        • Tashkin D.P.
        Effects of marijuana smoking on the lung.
        Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2013; 10: 239-247
        • Thiele E.A.
        • Marsh E.D.
        • French J.A.
        • Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska M.
        • Benbadis S.R.
        • Joshi C.
        • Sommerville K.
        Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.
        The Lancet. 2018; 391: 1085-1096
        • Timpone J.G.
        • Wright D.J.
        • Li N.
        • Egorin M.J.
        • Enama M.E.
        • Mayers J.
        • Galetto G.
        The safety and pharmacokinetics of single-agent and combination therapy with megestrol acetate and dronabinol for the treatment of HIV wasting syndrome.
        AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 1997; 13: 305-315
        • Thompson G.R.
        • Tuscano J.M.
        • Dennis M.
        • Singapuri A.
        • Libertini S.
        • Gaudino R.
        • Engelthaler D.M.
        A microbiome assessment of medical marijuana.
        Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2017; 23: 269-270
        • Tortoriello G.
        • Morris C.V.
        • Alpar A.
        • Fuzik J.
        • Shirran S.L.
        • Calvigioni D.
        • Harkany T.
        Miswiring the brain: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts cortical development by inducing an SCG10/stathmin-2 degradation pathway.
        The EMBO Journal. 2014; 33: 668-685
        • Turcotte D.
        • Doupe M.
        • Torabi M.
        • Gomori A.
        • Ethans K.
        • Esfahani F.
        • Namaka M.
        Nabilone as an adjunctive to gabapentin for multiple sclerosis-induced neuropathic pain: A randomized controlled trial.
        Pain Medicine. 2015; 16: 149-159
        • U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
        Order [No. 19-1120].
        • U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General
        U.S. Surgeon General's advisory: Marijuana use and the developing brain.
        • U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs
        Attorney general announces formal medical marijuana guidelines [Press release].
        • U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration
        Disposal act: General public fact sheet.
        • U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration
        FDA-approved drug Epidiolex placed in schedule V of Controlled Substance Act [Press release].
        • U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration
        DEA announces steps necessary to improve access to marijuana research [Press release].
        • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
        Marinol (dronabinol) capsules, for oral use.
        • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
        Cesamet (nabilone) capsules for oral administration.
        • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
        • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
        Marinol (dronabinol) capsules, for oral use.
        • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
        Drug trials snapshots: Epidiolex.
        • Vandrey R.
        • Raber J.C.
        • Raber M.E.
        • Douglass B.
        • Miller C.
        • Bonn-Miller M.O.
        Cannabinoid dose and label accuracy in edible medical cannabis products.
        JAMA. 2015; 313: 2491-2493
        • Verweij K.J.
        • Zietsch B.P.
        • Lynskey M.T.
        • Medland S.E.
        • Neale M.C.
        • Martin N.G.
        • Vink J.M.
        Genetic and environmental influences on cannabis use initiation and problematic use: A meta-analysis of twin studies.
        Addiction. 2010; 105: 417-430
        • Volkow N.D.
        • Baler R.D.
        • Compton W.M.
        • Weiss S.R.
        Adverse health effects of marijuana use.
        New England Journal of Medicine. 2014; 370: 2219-2227
        • Wallace M.S.
        • Marcotte T.D.
        • Umlauf A.
        • Gouaux B.
        • Atkinson J.H.
        Efficacy of inhaled cannabis on painful diabetic neuropathy.
        The Journal of Pain. 2015; 16: 616-627
        • Walsh Z.
        • Gonzalez R.
        • Crosby K.
        • Thiessen M.S.
        • Carroll C.
        • Bonn-Miller M.O.
        Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review.
        Clinical Psychology Review. 2017; 51: 15-29
        • Ware M.A.
        • Wang T.
        • Shapiro S.
        • Collet J.-P.
        • for the COMPASS study team
        Cannabis for the management of pain: Assessment of safety study (COMPASS).
        The Journal of Pain. 2015; 16: 1233-1242
        • Weier M.
        • Hall W.
        The use of cannabinoids in treating dementia.
        Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports. 2017; 17: 56
        • Wilkinson M.
        Policy statement regarding marijuana issues in Indian country [Memorandum]. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Executive Office for United States Attorneys website.
        • Wilkinson S.T.
        • Radhakrishnan R.
        • D'Souza D.C.
        Impact of cannabis use on the development of psychotic disorders.
        Current Addiction Reports. 2014; 1: 115-128
        • Yücel M.
        • Solowij N.
        • Respondek C.
        • Whittle S.
        • Fornito A.
        • Pantelis C.
        • Lubman D.I.
        Regional brain abnormalities associated with long-term heavy cannabis use.
        Archives of General Psychiatry. 2008; 65: 694-701


      Kathleen A. Russell, JD, MN, RN, is an Associate Director, Division of Nursing Regulation, National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Chicago, Illinois.

      Linked Article

      • Conflict of Interest Compliance Article 3
        Journal of Nursing Regulation Vol. 12Issue 2
        • Preview
          As is standard in scholarly publishing, NCSBN’s Journal of Nursing Regulation (JNR) requires its authors to disclose any potential conflicts of interest (COI). Although COI information has always been collected by our staff in order to support editors’ review of the paper, it was not our standard practice to publish COI statements in each article. In this issue, JNR is retrospectively publishing the COI statements, which were collected with the below papers at submission, in order to make potential COI’s transparent to readers, as well as editors.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF